Loidl IT glossary
Many IT terms are not self-explanatory and therefore we have summarized the most important definitions and descriptions around the topic of IT for you.
Active Directory (AD)
is a central directory service from Microsoft, which was first introduced with Windows 2000. The Microsoft Active Directory is the central information source of a network. It bundles all information about users, passwords, access shares and restrictions. It gives the system administrator a better overview of the network structure and provides assistance in network administration.
Application programming interface. It is a programming interface, also application interface, which allows programs to communicate with each other.
An add-on is a dependent software component (not included in the scope of delivery) that supplements the previous usage options with additional, useful functions after installation. An add-on can also be removed at any time without having to reinstall the main application.
Advertising Malware. The goal of adware is to trick the user into clicking on unwanted advertisements (in order to generate revenue). Adware often gets onto users' devices via drive-by downloads. Cybercriminals use the vulnerabilities of a browser to play the malicious code onto the user's system, usually unnoticed.
A software application or program developed and programmed for a specific purpose.
Artificial Intelligence (AI)
Artificial intelligence is a term used to describe the ability of computers to mimic human abilities such as reasoning, knowledge representation, planning, learning, natural language processing, perception, robotics, social intelligence, and general intelligence.
Augmented Reality (AR)
Augmented reality (AR) uses a device placed between the person and their environment to provide an augmented version of their surroundings by displaying virtual elements in the field of view.
The backend usually refers to the server infrastructures that form the heart of the application. The functions of the software are programmed and defined in the backend. Without a backend, there would be no frontend, even if the backend is not visible to the user.
A backup refers to the data protection or backup copy of files or databases so that they are preserved in the event of a device failure or deletion of files. The backed up files can thus be restored at any time.
A blockchain is a list of records linked together using special cryptographic operations over a distributed computer network.
A wireless networking technology that allows users to send voice and data from one electronic device to another via radio waves.
A set of files stored on your hard disk that help your browser display previously visited pages faster. It displays the files from your hard disk instead of from the Internet.
A challenge-response test in the form of an image with distorted text that the user must enter to determine whether the user is a human or an automated bot.
A client or "customer" refers to the computer and software programs that run on the terminal device of a network and are connected to the server. The client is thus the interface between the server and the user and sends the user's requests to the server or responds to them on the screen (client-server technology).
A common abbreviation for cloud computing services offered (or even for a summary of all existing cloud services) is "the cloud". The cloud simply refers to software and services that run over the Internet rather than through your computer.
"Content Management System" is a collection of procedures used to manage workflows in a collaborative environment. Data can be defined in a CMS: Documents, movies, pictures, phone numbers, scientific data and so on. CMS are widely used to store, control, revise and publish documents. The CMS serves as a central archive of updates to an already existing file.
A small piece of information that you may have to accept when you connect to certain servers through a web browser. It is used during your session to identify you. A cookie is specific to the server that generated it and is sent only to that server.
Central processing unit; the part of a computer that oversees all operations and calculations.
"Cloud Service Provider" means a business model for the provision of cloud services.
Cascading Style Sheet; A set of rules that determine how web pages are displayed. CSS allows designers to create rules that determine how a page is displayed.
A cyberattack is a series of actions designed to infiltrate and damage computer networks, systems, and personal devices.
Cybersecurity is the practice of protecting digital assets from cybercriminals, including measures such as network security, penetration testing, and/or employee training.
Distributed Denial-of-Service is the unavailability of an Internet service, due to the overload of the data network. DDOS attack is a deliberate service blockade.
More on Wiki
"Desktop-as-a-Service" - is referred to as the outsourcing of a virtual desktop infrastructure (VDI) to a third-party provider - also known as virtual desktop or hosted desktop services.
A collection of information organized so that a computer application can quickly access selected information; think of it as an electronic filing system. Traditional databases are organized by fields, records (a complete set of fields), and files (a collection of records). Alternatively, in a hypertext database, any object (such as a text, image, or movie) can be linked to any other object.
The data center or data center includes facilities to house computer systems and related components, such as telecommunications and storage systems. This typically includes redundant or emergency power supplies, redundant data communications links, environmental controls (e.g., air conditioning, fire suppression), and security equipment. Data centers are increasingly being operated for the purpose of providing cloud solutions for personal and business applications.
Devices are input devices such as microphones, keyboards, mice, touchpads, wheels, joysticks, etc. Output devices include printers, monitors, projectors, and speakers.
"DevOps" evolved from the terms "Development" and "IT Operations." DevOps is a set of improvement or automation approaches from the areas that combine software development and system administration. It aims to shorten the system development lifecycle and ensure continuous delivery with high software quality.
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol is a protocol that allows a server on a local network to assign temporary IP addresses to a computer or other network devices.
The adoption of digital technologies by an organization with the goal of improving efficiency, value, and/or innovation.
An area on a disk that contains files or additional subdivisions called "subdirectories" or "folders". Using directories helps organize files into different categories, such as by application, type, or use.
Disaster recovery is the process, policies, and procedures for preparing to restore or continue an organization's critical technology infrastructure after a natural or man-made disaster. Disaster recovery is a subset of business continuity. While business continuity involves planning for the maintenance of all aspects of an organization in the midst of disruptive events, disaster recovery focuses on the IT or technology systems that support business functions.
The "domain name system" is the way computers convert human-readable domain names and host names into numeric IP addresses.
Drag and drop
Clicking an icon and moving it over another icon to trigger a specific action. Example: dragging a file over a folder to copy it to a new location.
"Enterprise Resource Planning" is software that can automate entire enterprise processes (e.g.: Capital, Finance & Accounting, HR, Resources, Manufacturing, Delivery, Service and more).
Ethernet is the standard wired networking technology used almost everywhere today. If your computer is connected to a network by a cable, it probably uses an Ethernet cable. This cable plugs into an Ethernet port on your computer.
A suffix preceded by a period at the end of a file name; used to describe the file type. Example: On a Windows computer, the extension ".exe" represents an executable file.
A firewall is software or hardware that blocks certain types of traffic. For example, a firewall can block incoming traffic on a specific port or block all incoming traffic except traffic from a specific IP address.
The term "frontend" describes the user interface of a software, through which the user can enter information. It is the counterpart to the backend and the first thing the user sees.
Front End Developer
"File Transfer Protocol" is a method of exchanging files between computers over the Internet. It requires a program such as WS FTP for IBM PC or compatible computers or Fetch for Macintosh. Files can contain documents or programs and can be ASCII text or binary data.
A gateway is a device that routes traffic between networks. For example, at home, your router is your gateway. It provides a "gateway" between your LAN and WAN.
Greyware (or grayware) refers to malicious software or code that falls in the "gray zone" between normal software and a virus. Greyware is a term under which all other malicious or annoying software fall, such as adware, spyware, trackware and other malicious code, as well as malicious shareware.
A storage device that stores large amounts of data, usually in the range of hundreds to thousands of megabytes. Although they are usually built into the computer, some types of hard drives are connected separately and serve as additional storage. The terms "hard disk" and "hard disk drive" are often used interchangeably, but technically the term "hard disk" refers to the mechanism that reads data from the hard disk.
The physical components of a computer, including the keyboard, monitor, drive, and internal chips and cables. The hardware is the counterpart to the software.
Hosting describes the provision of IT infrastructure services or web services from a data center.
"HyperText Markup Language" is a language used to create web pages. It uses various instructions and tags to define how the document should look.
"HyperText Transfer Protocol" is a set of instructions that specify how a web server and a browser should work together.
Connects a piece of information (anchor) to a related piece of information (anchor) in an electronic document. When you click a hyperlink, you go directly to the linked destination, which may be in the same document or in a completely different document. Hyperlinks are commonly found on web pages, Word documents, and PDF files.
Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS): In the simplest cloud service model, IaaS providers offer computers - physical or (more commonly) virtualized hardware (IT infrastructure) in a virtualized environment or the cloud. IaaS is one of the three basic service models in cloud computing, along with PaaS and SaaS.
Information Technology (IT)
Information technology (IT) is the development and use of computer systems and networks to store, manage and retrieve information.
Internet of Things (IoT)
The Internet of Things (IoT) refers to the billions of physical devices around the world that are now connected to the Internet, all collecting and sharing data.
An Internet Protocol address, or IP address, is a numeric address that corresponds to your computer on a network. When a computer wants to connect to another computer, it connects to that computer's IP address. Each computer connected to the Internet has a unique identification number. Example: 192.168.100.2.
Hardware that is connected to the IP system (IP network) via an IP connection. (e.g.: Telephony over IP (Internet Protocol)).
IT infrastructure is the term used to describe all tangible and intangible assets that enable the operation of end devices, servers, databases, applications and other IT components. However, there is no conceptual and structural standardization of "IT infrastructure" because many of the contents overlap and intermingle.
A general-purpose programming language often used in conjunction with web pages that include animations. Small Java applications are called Java applets; many can be downloaded and run on your computer using a Java-compatible browser such as Firefox or Internet Explorer.
A publicly available scripting language that shares many of the features of Java; it is used to add dynamic content (various types of interactivity) to web pages.
Usually refers to a function of word processing and database management systems; a keyword is an index entry that correlates to a particular record or document.
A local area network is a "local network" that is limited to a local area. For example, your home network or an office network is a LAN. Connects a group of computers for the purpose of sharing resources such as programs, documents, or printers. Shared files are often stored on a central file server.
Linux is an open source operating system that is widely used in IT infrastructure. Linux is technically a family of different variants known as distributions, all based on the same core code known as the Linux kernel.
Media Access Control is the hardware address of a device connected to a shared network.
Each network interface has a Media Access Control (MAC) address, also known as a physical address. This is a unique identifier that can be used to identify different computers on a network. MAC addresses are usually assigned when a manufacturer manufactures a network device.
Machine learning is a form of artificial intelligence that allows software to learn patterns based on sample data.
A networked computer that is responsible for electronic mail (e-mail). You use a client program, such as Microsoft Outlook, to retrieve new e-mail from the server and to compose and send messages.
Malware is any software that is intentionally designed to interfere with a computer, server, client or computer network, to reveal private information, to gain unauthorized access to information or systems, to deny access to information, or that unknowingly compromises the user's computer security and privacy.
Managed services are predefined services that an IT service provider provides to its customers. In the case of managed services, only parts of the IT are outsourced to the support of an external IT service provider compared to classic IT outsourcing.
Tools to proactively monitor all components of the IT infrastructure to identify and resolve potential sources of failure before they occur and disrupt critical business processes.
A group of interconnected computers that can exchange information. A network can be as small as several personal computers in a LAN or as large as the Internet, a worldwide computer network.
A device that connects your computer to a network; is also known as an adapter card or network interface card.
Network administrators are IT professionals who support an organization's internal servers by installing, maintaining, and monitoring systems.
Consists of servers, systems, software, and services that connect multiple users together.
A common connection point for all devices on a network.
Network Interface / Network Adapter
Your computer's wired Ethernet connection and Wi-Fi connection are basically both network interfaces. If your laptop was connected to both a wired connection and a Wi-Fi network, each network interface would have its own IP address. Each is a different connection.
Network / IST analysis
A network analysis in the field of data communication is the activity in which the so-called LAN analysis is also carried out.
Support directly at the workplace or in the company, usually provided by a technically qualified person.
Open source refers to a concept in which the source code of software can be viewed publicly and by third parties, adapted and used within the framework of open source licensing models. Open source software is usually free to use.
In outsourcing, tasks, sub-areas or even entire business processes are outsourced to an external service provider. By relocating individual activities, the value chain is shortened, which can lead to cost reductions and improve the company's strategic market positioning.
A password manager is a computer program that allows users to store and manage their passwords for local applications and online services such as web applications, websites, online accounts, or social media.
Patch management is about distributing and applying software updates.
Penetration testing is the process of attacking a network to assess the strength of the network's cybersecurity defenses.
Phishing is a form of social engineering in which an attacker sends a fraudulent message aimed at tricking a human victim into revealing confidential information to the attacker or installing malicious software such as ransomware on the victim's infrastructure.
Platform as a Service (PaaS)
Platform as a Service (PaaS) is a complete development and deployment environment in the cloud with resources that allows you to deploy everything from simple cloud-based applications to sophisticated, cloud-ready enterprise applications.
„Post Office Protocol“ ist eine Methode zur Bearbeitung eingehender elektronischer Post. Beispiel: E-Mail-Programme können dieses Protokoll verwenden, um Ihre eingehenden Nachrichten auf einer speziellen Gruppe von Servern zu speichern und sie auf Anforderung zuzustellen.
Eine Seitenbeschreibungssprache, die hauptsächlich für den Druck von Dokumenten auf Laserdruckern verwendet wird; sie ist der Standard für das Desktop-Publishing, da sie die Vorteile von hochauflösenden Ausgabegeräten nutzt.
A private cloud is when a cloud infrastructure is provided and used for only one company/customer. In contrast to the public cloud, which is used by several customers at the same time and shared.
Protocol – TCP, UDP, ICMP, etc.
Protocols are different ways of communicating over the Internet. TCP and UDP are the most common protocols. The ICMP protocol is also used, but primarily to allow network devices to check the status of each other. Different protocols are ideal for different types of communication.
A provider is a provider / service provider that provides its services to a customer, such as IT services (IT providers).
Refers to a special type of server that acts as an intermediary between a client application (such as a web browser) and a real server. The proxy server intercepts requests for information from the real server and responds to them if possible. If he is unable to do so, the request will be forwarded to the real server.
Proxmox is an open-source virtualization platform with a web interface that makes it easy to manage your network infrastructure.
In the public cloud, an independent provider makes its IT resources publicly available so that multiple customers can access them simultaneously over the Internet and share the virtualized IT infrastructure. Service models such as IaaS or SaaS can be offered in the public cloud.
Random access memory gives your computer space to read and write data, allowing the CPU to find it quickly and easily. When we talk about memory expansions, we usually mean RAM.
Ransomware is a type of malicious software or malware that denies access to a computer system or data until a ransom is paid. Ransomware usually spreads via phishing emails or by unknowingly visiting an infected website.
Release & Deployment Management
The "Release and Deployment Management" process includes the activities required to control the releases of service assets and configuration items throughout the lifecycle of the service. It provides standard methods and procedures to use when implementing all releases. Release management essentially involves development, testing, deployment, and support, while deployment management includes goals and long-term strategic planning, as well as the individual tactical steps that help achieve those goals.
Remote means remote access to something, such as a desktop, that is displayed on a remote computer, even though the applications are installed on another computer. Remote operation is therefore the operation of e.g. an infrastructure remotely.
A remote, online, or managed backup service is a service that provides users with a system for backing up and storing computer files. Dataprise's remote backup solution includes automatic data compression and secure data encryption. This means that your critical system data is backed up safely and efficiently.
A Windows feature that allows you to access a Windows session from another computer in a different location.
A device used to connect two local area networks (LANs); a device that routes traffic back and forth. You probably have a router at home. This router is tasked with forwarding outbound traffic from your local devices to the Internet and forwarding incoming traffic from the Internet to your devices.
An interface on a computer that supports the transmission of a single bit at a time; can be used to connect almost any type of external device, including a mouse, modem or printer.
A computer that is responsible for responding to requests from a client program (such as a web browser or e-mail program) or computer. Also known as a "file server".
Service Level Agreement (SLA)
A service level agreement (SLA) is a contract that sets out a set of services that one party (the service provider) is willing to provide to another (the customer). An SLA defines the level of service you can expect from a vendor and sets out the criteria by which service will be measured, as well as remedies or penalties in case the agreed level of service is not met. It is an important part of any contract with a technology provider.
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol is an Internet standard for e-mail transmission.
Software as a Service is a software licensing and deployment model in which software is licensed on a subscription basis and centrally hosted. It is also sometimes referred to as "on-demand software".
E-mail spam, also known as junk e-mail or unsolicited bulk e-mail (UBE), is a subset of spam in which nearly identical messages are sent by e-mail to numerous recipients. The definition of spam usually includes the aspect that the e-mail is sent unsolicited and in bulk.
A spam filter is a program that improves users' cybersecurity protocols by detecting unwanted, unwanted, and virus-infected emails and preventing those messages from reaching the user's inbox.
In spoofing, cybercriminals impersonate another person or source of information by deception.
Jede Software, die über die Internetverbindung des Nutzers heimlich Informationen über den Nutzer sammelt, in der Regel zu Werbezwecken.
TCP / IP
Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol is an agreed-upon set of rules that dictates to computers how they should exchange information over the Internet. Other Internet protocols such as FTP, Gopher, and HTTP are based on TCP/IP.
With a terminal server, data is stored centrally on a powerful server and specific programs are executed there, while the user can run the programs decentrally over a network (working on the server).
An innocuous-looking program that tricks you into believing it's something you want to have, but that performs malicious actions when it's executed.
Two-factor authentication (2FA)
An additional layer of security achieved by a security token device; Users have a personal identification number (PIN) that identifies them as the owner of a particular token. A number is displayed on the token, which is entered after the PIN number to uniquely identify the owner for a particular network service. The identification number for each user is changed frequently, usually every few minutes.
Virtual Desktop Infrastructure
A software technology that separates the desktop environment and its application software from the physical client device used to access it.
A program designed to manipulate data on a computer in an invisible way, usually for malicious or destructive purposes. Viruses are often transmitted via the Internet or through infected files (e.g. via e-mail) and can infect almost all types of computers. Special antivirus programs are used to detect and eliminate them.
Virtual Reality (VR)
Virtual reality (VR) uses computer-simulated three-dimensional environments to provide the user with an immersive and interactive experience.
Voice phishing or vishing is the use of telephony to carry out phishing attacks.
Voice over Internet Protocol; a way to use the Internet as a transmission medium for telephone conversations. One advantage is that, in addition to the cost of Internet access, there are no additional fees.
Vulnerability assessment detects and analyzes vulnerabilities, and penetration testing exploits those vulnerabilities to determine the best mitigation solution.
VPN - „Virtual Private Networking“
A "virtual private network" is a tool for securely accessing resources on a network by connecting to a remote access server over the Internet or another network.
WAN – Wide-Area-Network
A wide-area network is a larger network that covers a larger area. Your ISP provides you with a connection to its own WAN, which connects to the Internet.
WAP – Wireless Application Protocol
"Wireless Application Protocol" is a set of communication protocols that enable wireless access to the Internet.
Wi-Fi – Wireless Fidelity
Wi-Fi is a general term used by the Wi-Fi Alliance to refer to all types of 802.11 networks (e.g., 802.11b, 802.11a, dual-band, etc.). Products approved as "Wi-Fi Certified" (a registered trademark) are certified for wireless communication with each other.
The ability to access the Internet without a physical network connection. Devices such as mobile phones and PDAs that allow you to send and receive e-mail use a wireless Internet connection based on a protocol called WAP (Wireless Application Protocol).
WLAN – Wireless Local Area Network
The "Wireless Local Area Network" is the term used to describe those computers and devices that form a wireless network.